Duke University seeks a 10th President who can embrace the Duke ethos and accelerate its compelling trajectory. Duke was created in 1924 with a gift from James Buchanan Duke to Trinity College. The university traces its roots back further to 1838 as a subscription school in rural North Carolina. By 1939, in merely 14 years, Duke University included undergraduate liberal arts colleges, a medical school, a hospital, a nursing school, a forestry school, a law school, an engineering school, a divinity school, and a graduate school, and had become a member of the Association of American Universities. Since then, Duke has grown to include ten schools and a health system comprising over 6,600 undergraduate students, 8,400 graduate and professional students, 3,400 faculty, 36,000 employees, and 165,000 active alumni. Duke had total operating expenditures of $5.2 billion in fiscal year 2015, with $2.5 billion for university operations, of which approximately one billion relates to the Medical School, and $2.7 billion for the health system. The university is now universally regarded as one of the leading American and global research universities.
The executive search firm of Isaacson, Miller has been retained to assist the search committee. All inquiries, nominations, and applications should be directed to the search firm, as indicated at the end of this document.
The Duke Ethos
In the last two generations, with consistent and outstanding leadership at all levels and across the full breadth of the university, Duke has emerged with a singular and deeply engrained identity. In ethos, it is a classic, broad-based, liberal arts and sciences university with faculty-shared governance built into its core and undergraduate teaching as an exceptionally high value. At the same time it has the energy of an entrepreneurial start-up, with an enterprising spirit that is shared equally by students, faculty, staff, alumni, administration, and trustees. Terry Sanford, Duke’s 6th President referred to Duke as “a place worthy of outrageous ambition.” That value continues to drive the university as it stays true to its mission of bringing knowledge to the service of society and is exemplified in a deep predisposition toward action.
Duke plans strategically and invests systematically, crossing schools and disciplines with incentives for innovation built deeply into both its governance and financial structure. Duke uses its resources wisely. It has demonstrated unusual discipline, skill, and success in achieving maximal impact from its investments. The university is optimistic in outlook and nimble in structure. It is diverse in every dimension and purposely collaborative. It takes pride in its success in Division I athletics, using competitive sports as a vehicle and emblem for character, intense cooperation, team spirit, and a striving for excellence.
The following themes are woven into the tapestry of everyday academic life at the university. Each has a long history and has been embraced and carried forward across several presidencies.
- Knowledge in the service of society: The commitment to serve is a core element of the university mission and a central Duke value. Duke encourages faculty, staff, and students to engage the larger issues that confront humanity in ways both academic and practical. That commitment instills the service of both students and faculty with an admirable passion, while also inspiring scholarly rigor.
- Interdisciplinary research and teaching: Duke has valued interdisciplinarity for over a generation and built its approach to academic inquiry on this philosophy long before it became accepted wisdom. The strategic plans of the last decade have put special emphasis on its importance, with particular emphasis on realizing faculty-driven initiatives. In addition to supporting schools and departmental programs, six university institutes focus on interdisciplinary research and education in ethics, brain sciences, humanities, environmental policy solutions, global health, and the social sciences. Regular strategic investments through the institutes continually stir creativity in every part of disciplinary life, pushing the frontiers of research, and deeply informing both graduate and undergraduate teaching.
- Engagement and experiential-learning and teaching in original discovery: Duke is committed to engagement – the idea that knowledge is often best gained by bringing what is learned in the classroom into contact with experience. In its teaching, this means offering multiple opportunities for students to engage with faculty members through original research, through small-group or individual learning experiences in the classroom, laboratory, and beyond, and through personalized advising. Outside the classroom, it means providing multiple opportunities for students to apply their knowledge acquired in the classroom to real life experiences by participating in programs such as DukeEngage and a wealth of other civic engagement and clinical experiences and internships available to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students.
- Global perspective and reach: Duke realizes that to be a great university it must be a global university, operating in a connected world with permeable borders for inquiry and discovery. Duke is one of only a very few universities that has committed to developing degree-granting campuses outside the U.S., in partnership with national and local governments and universities. Over the last decade, Duke has made two global commitments on a large scale. In 2005, Duke entered into an agreement with the National University of Singapore (NUS) to establish a new, combined Duke-NUS Medical School. By every measure and in every review, the project has been proclaimed a success. In 2013, Duke received approval from the Chinese Ministry of Education to create a new joint venture university in partnership with Wuhan University and the City of Kunshan, near Shanghai. The first phase of Duke Kunshan University (DKU) opened in 2014, with the new university initially offering selected masters degrees and undergraduate nondegree programs. A proposal for a four-year undergraduate degree program is now being considered.
These large commitments grow out of a long history of global engagement and programming. Nearly half of the Duke student body spends a semester or more outside the U.S. Duke students hail from more than 90 countries, and international students comprise 10% of the undergraduate student body and 25% of the graduate student population.
The Duke Trajectory
Among the great universities, Duke is the youngest. In the 1970’s, President Terry Sanford signaled a new age of ambition for what was then a strong, regional university. Duke reached for national and international distinction, recruiting distinguished academics in every area, with special attention to the humanities. Every part of Duke improved, from faculty excellence to sponsored research, to undergraduate enrollment, to medical-center prominence and did so at remarkable rates. A careful study of the metrics reveals a steady trajectory of improvement since the 1980’s. In the overall rankings by US News and World Report, Duke moved up consistently and then jumped, in the last decade, from low in the second decile into the top ten. Duke’s ranking in research, as measured by the NSF, moved from 17th in 2002 to 7th in 2014, the most recent year for which statistics are available. The increase in funding has followed major investments and improvements in the sciences and engineering. The Medical School is now ranked 8th by US News and World Report for Research. Major investments also have fueled a sharp rise in the Pratt School of Engineering to its current ranking of 30th in the nation and 13th among private institutions, including a top-five program in biomedical engineering.
At the same time and with the same impetus, Duke’s athletics program suddenly rose to exceptional prominence. Duke recruited Coach Mike Krzyzewski to lead Duke’s basketball program. The program rose to eminence just at the moment when broadcasts of college sports achieved a major surge in reach and popularity. The men’s basketball program, under Coach Krzyzewski’s leadership for 36 seasons, has achieved remarkable success, including 12 Final Four appearances and five national championships. Duke supports excellence across the board, including in its athletics program. The football program has achieved recent success, winning the 2015 Pinstripe Bowl, and the women’s golf team has won six national titles, among many other team successes. The university sets high standards for performance on and off the field, and Duke student-athletes have compiled 821 All-American honors and 107 Academic All-America awards.
Duke has developed a distinctive educational identity that integrates undergraduate teaching with front-line research and wide access to the professional schools. The commitment to undergraduate education combined with a pervasive interdisciplinary culture and proximity to world class graduate and professional schools sets it apart from peer institutions. Duke students typically exercise a breadth of academic choice in the context of a rigorous liberal arts program with interdisciplinary majors, minors and concentrations, blending that with civic engagement, both local and global, on issues large and small. Admissions rates reflect the success of this approach. Duke undergraduate applications have moved up steeply over the last decade, to 31,000 for a class of roughly 1,700. The admissions rate was 11% in 2015, half that of 2005. The yield on admissions is 49% and the middle 50% range of SAT scores for matriculating students was 1390 to 1530. Notably, 25% of applicants apply to the Pratt School of Engineering, which enrolls just under 20% of Duke students.
Co-curricular activity reinforces intellectual life, with faculty in Duke residences. To aid inclusion, Duke funds a full range of cultural offices and houses and has located them prominently in the heart of the campus. The university has invested in the arts, with a major art museum opening in the past decade and a new arts center under construction. The full range of learning opportunities—experiential, service and global—gives immediacy and excitement to undergraduate academic work. Fully half of Duke applicants cite “engagement” programs as their reason for choosing Duke.
Since the 1960’s, Duke has become increasingly diverse. The entering undergraduate class in 2015 comprises 11% African American students, 10% Latino/a students, 27% Asian American students, and 1% Native American students. Like all major campuses, issues of identity and inclusion are critical at Duke. Starting in 1993, Duke launched a Black Faculty Strategic Initiative and followed with the current Faculty Diversity Initiative. Both initiatives target fields and disciplines where women and minority faculty are underrepresented. In 2007, Duke created the Provost’s Postdoctoral Program to increase the diversity of scholars who have potential for becoming tenure track faculty at Duke or peer institutions, particularly in fields where there are fewer women and/or underrepresented minorities. In 2015, the Academic Council chartered a Task Force on Diversity which reported its conclusions and recommendations, and in November 2015 the president followed it with a Task Force on Bias and Hate Issues, whose report was made public in May 2016. Both reports provide a blueprint for action by Duke, in concert with its various constituencies.
The Duke faculty consists of close to 3,400 members including 1,714 tenured or tenure-track professors. Throughout its history, 10 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Duke, with the most recent Nobel Prizes in Chemistry being awarded to Robert Lefkowitz in 2012 and Paul Modrich in 2015. Currently, 24 Duke faculty are members of the National Academy of Sciences, seven are members of the National Academy of Engineering, and 33 are members of the National Academy of Medicine. The faculty at Duke has grown by approximately one-third in the past decade, and over the same period, the percentage of female faculty rose from 30% to 36%. Faculty diversity remains an area of focus; there have been modest gains in the percentages of Black (3.8 to 4.4%) and Hispanic (1.8 to 2.6%) faculty. The Academic Council and the Executive Committee, which it elects, are the chief instruments of university-wide faculty governance at Duke University. The Council typically treats matters that concern more than one unit of the university. Topics of discussion in recent years have included the globalization of Duke’s academic programs, university finances and related planning, faculty salary equity reports, faculty diversity and the extent of progress in recruiting and retaining minority faculty, and the intellectual climate of residential undergraduate student life, among many others.
Faculty strength has been essential to Duke’s success, and the university has had a tradition of distinguished scholars. As it embraced national ambitions, and as resources improved, the university invested carefully, building strength in selected departments and schools. The Responsibility Centered Management budget model increased the incentive for professional schools to build their revenue streams and their faculties. In the last 15 years, the schools and the college have frequently cooperated in joint programs and joint hires, with shared resources from the center and the schools. Cross-school and interdisciplinary commitments have often enabled Duke to win out over more established competitors; today, all the professional schools are in the top ten. Arts and Sciences has added 100 new faculty in the last decade, with special distinction in the humanities and social sciences. The natural sciences will need significant investments in both physical plant and faculty in order to become more competitive. The Pratt School of Engineering and the School of Medicine have made common cause in biomedical engineering and have built impressive laboratories together. As the medical center plans further significant investments, there are additional opportunities for combined efforts across the board in both science and engineering.
Not surprisingly, the sponsored research enterprise has grown with the strength of the faculty. It hovers now at just under $1 billion a year, and among private universities, Duke ranks second only to Johns Hopkins. Sponsored research has been principally driven by the School of Medicine, which still attracts 80% of the funds. In the last decade, the Pratt School of Engineering, with its concentration on biomedical engineering, has grown substantially. Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, the Nicholas School of the Environment, and the Sanford School of Public Policy have all developed strong sponsored-research activity. Duke leads the nation in industry-sponsored research, much of it in the Duke Clinical Research Institute, an innovative and unique medical research organization.
Duke has had a very successful clinical care and research enterprise since its founding in 1930. The Duke University Health System (DUHS) is today one of the great healthcare delivery systems. The School of Medicine is at the forefront of research in many fields, as is Duke’s top-five School of Nursing. With excellent leadership, a new state-of-the-art physical plant, and strong demand for its services, DUHS is very well positioned for future success. DUHS had $3.0 billion in total operating revenue in fiscal year 2015, with an operating margin in excess of $350 million; DUHS fiscal year 2016 performance is projected to meet or exceed that of fiscal year 2015.
DUHS supports cutting edge science through its investment in laboratories and faculty, and it provides opportunities for teaching and research not only for fellows and residents in training but also for undergraduates. It operates in a relatively low-cost geography where the shift to new forms of reimbursement will emerge somewhat more incrementally than in larger urban areas. Moreover, Duke manages a medical school in Singapore and health care masters programs both within Duke and at Duke Kunshan. Duke Health is one of the university’s most strategic assets and will continue to be central to its academic investment strategy.
At every phase of Duke’s growth, the leadership, including trustees, alumni, administration, and faculty, has attended carefully to Duke’s financial strength. There are now 165,000 very loyal alums. The size of capital campaigns jumped dramatically to $2.4 billion in The Campaign for Duke, which finished in 2003. Annual fundraising was $264 million in 2001 and climbed steadily (with a brief interruption in 2009) to $478 million in 2015. The current campaign, “Duke Forward,” has a target of $3.25 billion. Due to conclude on July 1, 2017, the campaign is running well ahead of schedule.
Simultaneously, Duke’s investment arm, DUMAC, achieved a roughly 16% return on investments for the period 1990 to 2008, the second highest rate of return for any university in the nation. Over the past two decades, the university endowment has grown from just over $700 million to nearly $7 billion today.
Organizing for success: building innovative and visionary strategic planning into the heart of the university
Duke has systematically leveraged its core strengths and created academic distinction by assembling a critical mass of faculty and resources. Its approach has been both planned and entrepreneurial, requiring good faith, collaboration, intense and honest discussion and reliable execution. That system has functioned with increasing coherence since the first strategic plan in 2001 and is the foundation of today’s continuing drive for improved teaching and academic eminence.
The Duke leadership has conducted strategic planning in regular cycles, starting with “Building on Excellence” in 2001, and “Making a Difference: The Strategic Plan for Duke University” in 2006. Both plans were built from the bottom up, putting visionary themes to the practical test of faculty, staff, and student interest and were carefully implemented. After the appointment of a new provost in 2014, Duke launched a new academic strategic planning process. The plan is being developed over the summer and fall of 2016 before being presented to the faculty and the Board of Trustees in the 2016-2017 academic year.
Geography, the ecology of innovation, and the campus
Duke has a competitive advantage in location. Durham is a vibrant small city, and in the last decade, with very substantial investment from Duke, it has become an entrepreneurial hot bed and a cultural center. Duke has deep community ties, is a key partner in the development of the region, and has more than one million square feet of laboratories and offices in downtown Durham with more planned. Nearby, the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Central University, a large HBCU, and North Carolina State University are public research universities with exceptionally strong science and engineering enterprises, providing myriad opportunities for collaboration and partnership. Together, these several institutions of higher education supported the development of the Research Triangle Park, which has created an entrepreneurial ecology in the region and given “The Triangle” its identity. Today, a technology community has emerged, growing organically, drawing on the strengths of the universities and, in turn, feeding their aspirations. Accessibility is a major asset. Downtown Durham is just two miles from Duke, and the Research Triangle Park is ten miles away. The area is served by a convenient international airport approximately twenty minutes from campus. Duke’s proximity to the Mid-Atlantic Region, and Washington, D.C. in particular, provide easy access to federal funding agencies, policy makers, and many other collaborators that advance the research and education missions.
Duke competes for faculty and leadership with the very finest academic institutions, many of which are in the country’s highest-cost regions. Today, on an adjusted cost-of-living basis, Duke is at or near the top in faculty compensation and uses this advantage to attract outstanding faculty and staff. In addition, Duke is not space-constrained; it owns large tracts of undeveloped land available for future development, and it benefits from a relatively low cost of leasing space.
All of Duke’s schools and colleges are located on a single campus. The medical center and hospital is a short walk from the main administration building, the humanities departments, and the science labs. The capacious and beautiful Duke Gardens are adjacent to the West Campus and the medical center. The university is in the midst of unprecedented capital investments that will provide a premier educational and student life environment for Duke students, including major renovations or upgrades to Perkins Library, the East Campus Union and West Campus Union, Page Auditorium, Baldwin Auditorium, Duke Chapel, all major athletics facilities, and other key existing venues on campus, as well as a new state-of-the-art Student Health and Wellness Center, a new Arts Building, and two new undergraduate residence halls. Over the three-year period that will end June 30, 2017, the university will have spent over a billion dollars on facilities-related enhancements on campus.
Challenges and Opportunities for Duke’s 10th President
Articulate and Execute a Distinctive Vision for the Next Phase of Duke’s Ascent
Duke made strategic bets and bold choices that drove an unprecedented ascent in ranking and stature. It has encouraged academic innovation and promoted an entrepreneurial spirit among the schools and faculty, fostering research and teaching excellence and attracting a diverse and talented student body. As higher education grapples with the critical issues of cost, technology, globalization, health care reform, and academic competition from heavily endowed peers, Duke seeks a president who can draw on the university’s unique identity, articulate an inclusive vision for this time, and increase its prominence as one of the leading global research universities.
The Duke community will welcome a new president who listens attentively, plans transparently, and can effectively integrate the parts of a highly diverse system without reducing complexity. The president will work with an outstanding leadership team and will need to plan carefully for succession in key positions. Recruiting top talent into key positions and maintaining the high performance of the university administration will be a critical factor in implementing a vision. The board, faculty, students, staff, and alumni all expect the university to continue its trajectory and to define itself as a top-tier, global, and increasingly distinguished research university.
Deepen the Sense of Community and Commitment to Diversity and Inclusion
Duke is committed to inclusion and diversity in every form. As the world shrinks, demographics change, and societal norms evolve, Duke must continue its active commitment to encouraging open discourse and to holding itself to the highest standards. The next president must bring an understanding of and unwavering commitment to the ways in which diversity strengthens and deepens the education of Duke students and improves the climate for all members of the Duke community. Following the recent reports from the Task Force on Diversity and the Task Force on Bias and Hate Issues, the Duke community is acutely aware of the structural changes, policy adoptions, trainings, and other ways in which it can improve and become more inclusive, safe, and welcoming for students, faculty, and staff. The president will be expected to provide the leadership that builds a more open and inclusive learning community for all.
Duke recognizes that diversity is a prerequisite for both the pedagogical and research functions of the university. Duke has a talented and diverse student body, but faculty diversity has lagged. To maintain its influence and leadership position, it is imperative that Duke recruit broadly for excellence in its faculty, staff, and students from among previously untapped talent pools.
Enhance the Distinction of Duke’s Academic Departments
The president should ensure the success of the entire academic enterprise through careful planning, philanthropy, and strategic investment of financial and human capital. The new president will define priorities and make choices that preserve Duke’s strength in the humanities, social sciences, and the professional schools, while also leading investment in the natural and physical sciences. There are multiple niches that are natural strengths for the university, and it is crucial that Duke continues to build the technological and scientific capacities that are essential in a first-tier university.
Sustain and Develop Duke Health
Duke Health has done exceptionally well, and its success has greatly contributed to the university as a whole. It faces a dynamic healthcare landscape that will present new opportunities. Duke has adapted to changing market pressures and succeeded in responding to current challenges in research funding, at a time when many other academic medical centers are stretched. A new president will need to work in close concert with the Chancellor for Health Affairs in order to guarantee that Duke Health maintains its own excellent trajectory and seizes new opportunities as they arise. Additionally, the president and the chancellor will cooperate with the provost and the deans to leverage partnerships between the university and the health system that support the educational mission of both divisions and raise the stature and reputation of sciences at Duke.
Expand Duke’s Global Reach through Strategic Partnerships
Duke is a globally-engaged university, and the next president will be expected to lead the university’s development on a global scale. Specifically, the president will play a key role in sustaining relationships with local partners of the newly opened Duke Kunshan University and supporting the continued success of Duke-NUS. The operations of these campuses are complex, involving close collaborations with government partners, among many other factors. In addition to these major partnerships, Duke is now developing educational and research initiatives in Africa, Brazil, and India. Overall, the president will lead the university’s efforts to implement a global vision that integrates the university physically and/or virtually with current or potential partnerships and sites around the globe.
Strengthen the Duke Community through Communication with all its Constituencies, both Locally and Globally
Duke students, faculty, staff, and alumni are deeply engaged in the life of the university. The president will take the lead in maintaining and enhancing the vibrancy of the community, encouraging the active involvement of all constituencies. It will be crucial to keep all community members informed of critical developments and to plan through consultative processes. The president must listen to dissenting voices in a way that lets all groups know they have been respectfully heard. Inviting faculty participation will be an especially important part of the process. Strengthening bonds with Duke alumni and increasing their substantive involvement with the university is an important task.
Duke is often in the national spotlight, and the president is expected to steward and elevate Duke’s reputation. The new president will confront the considerable challenge of being visible, representing the university, and communicating its interests within the campus community, in the Triangle region, across the nation and the globe. Continuing Duke’s engagement in the state and region, building community locally, and developing collaborative relationships with neighbors and stakeholders will be important objectives for the president. Furthermore, the president will lead Duke in contributing to the enhancement of the quality of life more widely in the world.
Advance the Business Model for Long Term Sustainability
Duke enjoys a strong financial standing among its peers, but it exists in a very competitive environment. Economic and demographic forecasts challenge all higher education institutions and suggest that stresses on finances will only increase. Duke remains one of a small number of “need-blind” admissions institutions in the United States. The university is steadfast in this commitment, although it requires difficult financial choices; Duke’s endowment resources are not comparable to those of other institutions in its peer group. Ensuring long-term sustainability will mean substantially increasing the endowment, addressing the cost structure, and securing and strengthening all current and future sources of revenue. The next president should lead strategic thinking that enhances its revenues while maximizing the use of all Duke’s resources. As the first steward of Duke’s resources, the president must work with the board to continue successful growth of endowed funds, while minimizing risk and managing debt.
Enhance Duke’s Success in Philanthropy
Through the generosity of its alumni and their parents, grateful patients, and many other friends, as well as the stewardship exercised by its board and the president, Duke has built a very strong endowment that keeps the university competitive. Duke’s next president must deepen existing relationships and also cultivate new donors, in order to grow the endowment and support specific projects and campaigns. The president will be expected to be energetic and resourceful in sharing the Duke story when meeting with individuals, corporations, and foundations.
The Qualifications of the President
Duke seeks an exceptional leader with the vision, leadership qualities, and energy to elevate an already outstanding institution. Although the search committee understands that no single candidate will have all of the ideal qualifications, it seeks candidates with the following experience and abilities:
- Proven, Visionary Leadership: A record of innovation and verifiable success that will inspire and earn the confidence of all the university’s constituents; a bold leader who exhibits a spirit of adventure and entrepreneurism as well as a strong record of achievement in advancing new initiatives and establishing them successfully; the proven capacity to weave a compelling and authentic narrative about the institution(s) s/he has served; a record of advancing an organization’s profile and reputation regionally, nationally, and internationally; passion for the mission of higher education and the desire and ability to lead the discussion about its future on a national and global platform.
- Academic Stature and Intellectual Leadership: A strong academic record and a commitment to exceptional scholarly inquiry; experience with and recognition of the value and importance of interdisciplinary research and education; a history of recruiting outstanding faculty; a deep appreciation of the research mission and the capacity to build research, teaching, and scholarly programs at significant scale; thorough understanding of and commitment to the undergraduate liberal arts experience, coupled with appreciation and enthusiasm for stellar graduate and professional education; intellectual curiosity and commitment to the full range of academic disciplines, including a value and appreciation for the role of science in society; a demonstrated respect for academic freedom and diverse opinions on key social and political questions of the day.
- Exceptional Leadership Style: Excellence in communication, with the ability to energize and inspire faculty, students, staff, parents, alumni, trustees, and external stakeholders; a collaborative, inclusive, and transparent leadership style, with a willingness to consult and listen; the highest standards of ethics and integrity; proven efficacy in working with a governing board, as a group and as individuals; experience in building and maintaining an engaged and supportive board.
- Collaborative Management Style and Demonstrated Executive Ability: Sound business acumen and judgment to lead a large and complex enterprise with diverse activities; the ability to build strong management teams, to make difficult decisions, and to execute large, ambitious, and fiscally responsible plans; a record of successful administrative leadership; a record of effectively recruiting and retaining strong executives.
- Proven Commitment to Diversity and Inclusion: Broad experience with diverse students, faculty, and communities, and the proven capacity to embrace diversity in all aspects, including the capacity to recruit, welcome, retain, and build an integrated, inclusive, and diverse culture; recognized skill as a gifted communicator in diverse settings.
- Dedication to the Student Experience: Deep personal commitment to teaching and learning and an affinity for students; understanding of the complexities of student life on college campuses; appreciation for Duke Athletics and its essential role in the Duke experience.
- Commitment to Fundraising: The capacity and desire to represent Duke compellingly to donors and to develop ideas that will support ambitious philanthropic goals; the ability to energize alumni to support and champion the entire institution; the capacity to connect with and relate to members of the Duke community on a personal level; the ability to listen acutely to others and thus build strong relationships.
- Global Perspective: Appreciation of the importance of teaching students how to value and thrive in cultures other than their own, combined with an understanding of how to integrate a global perspective into the work of an educational institution; the ability and desire to help lead a discussion about the future of higher education in an evolving national context and an increasingly globalized society.
- Collegial and Personable Character: Uncompromising integrity; a sense of humor combined with a sense of purpose; a style of communication that is values-based, honest, and transparent; an appreciation of spiritual values and those who hold them.